Filed under

Bird Species P-T

A – B | C – E | F – J | K – O | P – T | U – Z

Killdeer (Charadrius vociferus)

Filed under

The Killdeer (Charadrius vociferus) is probably one of the best known plover species in America. Commonly seen in parking lots, fields and farms, the Killdeer is renowned for its clever predator evasion tactics. A farmer’s friend, the Killdeer is certainly well-worth getting to know. Join us as we learn more about this fascinating bird.

America’s Killdeer is a stunning bird and quickly identified. Its length measures in at between 20 and 28 cm and its wingspan at 46 to 48 cm. It is much the same size as a typical robin, but its legs are much longer. Most notable are the two thick black bands running across the Killdeer’s white chest. The rump, tail and lower back are also a distinctive orange color. The Killdeer’s throat and short neck are white and a white band marks the forehead, with a black band just above. to the side of each eye is a striking white eyestripe. The Killdeer’s wings and upperback are brown and the wings are boldly striped with white, typically seen when flying. This beautiful bird is very vocal and emits a loud kill-deeah sound.

The Killdeer has been classified as a shorebird, but it is frequently seen far off from water in pastures, on golf courses and at airfields. They are quick runners and fantastic fliers. During the summer the Killdeers nest in southern Canada, their range stretching from Newfoundland all the way to British Columbia and up to Alaska. They also nest through the United States and into Mexico. Winters are spent in Long Island and the coasts of British Columbia and the north of South America. Migration is slow and flight takes place in the day and night. Killdeers are keen insect eaters, dining on beetles, worms, grasshoppers, bugs, dragon flies, caterpillars and other creatures which cause damage to farmers’ crops. They also feed on other types of invertebrates including spiders, snails, crustacea, centipedes and so forth.

Nests are simple scrapes in the ground which may be lined. A clutch of 4 to 6 eggs is laid and incubation lasts 22 to 30 days. The hatching chicks are precocial and hop out of the nest as soon as their soft down feathers have dried. As mentioned already, the Killdeer has remarkable skills when it comes to guarding its nest and young. Should a grazing animal accidentally wander too close, the adult Killdeer will run toward the animal with its wings outstretched. If the intruder is a predator the parents will fly about, calling loudly. This is followed by a distraction display of feigning injury. This “injured” bird keeps just out of reach of the threatening individual so as to draw it away from the nest. As the predator moves far enough away from the nest and the young have had time to take cover, the Killdeer parent flies off.

Piping Plover (Charadrius melodus)

Filed under

The Piping Plover (Charadrius melodus) is a tiny shore bird that measures 5.5 inches in length, with orange legs and a stubby little bill. Generally, the adults have white faces with a black stripe across their forehead and a thick band of black across their breast. Some adults have paler breast bands, and at times they are not complete. Their bills can range between an orange bill that becomes dark at the point to just a dark bill. They have white bellies, while their upper body parts such as wings are gray to sandy colored, and it is the complete coloring of the Piping Plover that allows them to blend in with their surroundings.

This shore bird is treated as an endangered bird species in Canada and the United States. It only breeds in three geographic areas in North America, namely the East Coast, the Great Lakes region and on the Northern Great Plains. Piping Plovers prefer gravel beaches, coastal areas, prairie lakes and specific saline lakes and river sandbars. The nesting habits of the Piping Plover greatly depend on the level of water and the surrounding vegetation. Human activity along the coastal areas has also interfered with the nesting. Artificial nesting sites have been established to encourage nesting, but these have not proven to be successful. Although Piping Plovers are known to be able to live for 14 years, most Plovers don’t survive for more than five.

Piping Plovers feed on aquatic invertebrates, which the Plovers pick up with their bills by probing the shore-lines and pecking alternatively as the run and stop. Nests are created by scraping hollows into the ground and then lining these with bits of seashells, bone fragments and small pebbles. Piping Plovers will only have one partner during the breeding season, and will only select a new partner in the next season. Females are able to re-nest if the eggs are destroyed. She will lay about four eggs that are pale with black speckles. The 26 to 28 day incubation period is shared between the parents and within 20 to 25 days the chicks will be able to take short flights, with full flight capabilities at 27 days. If a Piping Plover feels that its nest is being threatened by any form of predator, they will fake injury to lead the danger away. Chicks will crouch into a motionless position to avoid detection from the danger. The female will leave the nest before the family disperses, leaving the male to attend to the chicks until they fledge the nest.

Wild Birds

Filed under

Wild birds are found throughout the world. They vary in shapes and sizes from tiny finches to the majestic condors of America.

Each species of wild bird is adapted to thrive in its own evironment. For example, hummingbirds are adapted to feed on nectar from tubular flowers, while eagles are adapted to prey on animals using their strong talons. Ducks are adapted to swimming and vultures are adapted for flight by using thermals.

Wild birds also differ in how they nest. Weaver birds will create intricately woven nests that hang from the branches of trees. Certain birds, such as plovers, will build nests on the ground. Doves will often build very messy nests. Wild birds need to protect their nests and themselves from predators. They will do this by swooping down upon predators whilst issuing alarm calls to other birds in the area. Wild birds will sometimes form mob attacks on predators.

When it comes to breeding season it is important for male birds to establish and maintain their territory. This is done by means of song. Males will also attack intruders into their territory. Wild birds have many strange and wonderful mating displays. Male birds of paradise will perform an intricate dance to attract females. They will sway and bend or stand upright, and certain species will even hang upside down.

It is likely that the wild birds you will see will be those in your garden. To attract more wild birds to your backyard, you may want to provide a variety of feeders and types of food, some shelter and a bird bath.

In increasing number of people are joining the ranks of enthusiastic birders and taking pleasure in viewing wild birds. Perhaps you too would enjoy this popular activity.

Collared Plover (Charadrius collaris)

Filed under

The Collared Plover (Charadrius collaris) is commonly found throughout the year in Mexico, Northern Argentina and central Chile, with a few being recorded in Guatemala. They are both coastal and inland birds, and frequent beaches, wetland areas, rivers and even ponds. Adult Collared Plovers are white on their bellies, with a black band across their chests. Male Collared Plovers have white on their foreheads with chestnut coloring on their midcrown and nape. Their legs are yellow in color and in flight, plumages are dark featuring a white wing bar. The females look very similar to their male counterparts, except for having a brown tinge to their black feathers.

These coastal and inland birds are extremely wary and are generally loners, very rarely being seen in flocks. They have a unique manner of scavenging for food, which is referred to as a run-and-pause technique. Most wader groups will use probing to find the insects and invertebrates, but the Plover prefers to keep moving, only stopping at intervals at the sight of movement. Nests are either built in the ground just above the tide line, or more inland. Female Collared Plovers lay two to four eggs at a time that are cream in color and have brown blotches. The males will engage in ground displays, to catch the eye of a suitable partner. Collared Plovers do not change plumage during or between breeding seasons.

As research has shown that the number of individual Collared Plovers is estimated at approximately 10,000, there is no cause for concern in regard to the conservation of the species. Due to the minimal decline in the population over ten years, these birds are not expected to reach the threshold of extinction any time soon. Conservationists are constantly monitoring the populations, but it is safe to say that these fast running birds will be seen along the shores for many years.

Official Migratory Bird Havens Now Available in East End Parks

Filed under Features

As part of efforts to boost the success rates of nesting birds in the region, some 2 140 acres of state parkland have been set aside on Long Island’s East End as a conservation area. The protected area will be the 50th such designated zone for birds in New York State and will greatly benefit species such as piping plovers and ospreys.

Read more