Parakeets are an integral part of the Indian subcontinent as well known and highly celebrated avifauna members down the ages. Although commonly misidentified as ‘parrots’ all the members of the parrot family reported from the Indian subcontinent are actually ‘parakeets’ and not true parrots, with the exception of the Vernal Hanging Parrot (Indian Lorikeet). The distinctive calls of the parakeets are reminiscent of both the Indian wild as well characteristic of the resident feral populations in several cities and towns of the continent. The parakeets have been closely associated with the art, culture, literature, language, ethnicity and history of the land in a colorful and interwoven mosaic. The close association of the different parakeet species to the subcontinent life and culture represent a kaleidoscope of people, culture and a vast array of noisy, colorful and majestic species of birds closely integrated together. Several parakeet species from the subcontinent have also been introduced in other countries on different continents; and like their native habitats have been successful in establishing feral populations in their new homes overseas.
The parakeets belong to the Order Psittaciformes, Superfamily-Psittacoidea, Family-Psittaculidae; Sub family-Psittaculinae and the genus Psittacula. True parrots (such as Macaws, Parrots and African Grey Parrot) belong to the Superfamily-Psittacoidea, Family-Psittacidae; while Cockatoos belong to the Super Family-Cacatuoidea and Family-Cacatuidae and are then placed under different sub-families and sub genera. There is a third group of parrots called the New Zealand Parrots belonging to the Super Family-Strigopoidea. Leaving aside all the taxonomic jargon, we can simply mention that both parakeets and parrots belong to the same family but are then separated morphologically, genetically and geographically.
Parrots are represented by over 350 species and over 80 genera across the planet but they are most well know in the regions of Central and South America, Africa and Australasia. The parakeets (often called the lesser parrots) are smaller in size compared to the true parrots; and are more common in Australia and the Indian subcontinent. The most popular and well known parakeet in the world is the Australian budgerigar or the famous budgie or the keet (Melopsittacus undulates Shaw) and is reported to be one of the most common pets, following dogs and cats.
There are 11 parakeets reported from the Indian subcontinent (please see the table below) and the 12th one is suspected to be a hybrid (Intermediate Parakeet or Rothschild’s Parakeet). Only one hanging parrot species is reported from the region (Vernal Hanging Parrot or Indian Lorikeet). All the 11 parakeets belong to different species under the same genus ; with the Vernal Hanging Parrot or Indian Lorikeet that belongs to the genus Loriculus. Many of the parakeets have different sub species occupying different geographical regions. They vary in size between 14 cm (Vernal Hanging Parrot or Indian Lorikeet), the smallest of the Indian parakeets, to as big as the Alexandrine parakeet (53 cm) and the Nicobar parakeet (61 cm). The Nicobar parakeet is the largest reported parakeet. Other members are intermediate in lengths between these two extremes but are all above 35 cm on average.
Juvenile Alexandrine Parakeet (Psittacula eupatria Linnaeus). Photo credit: Manorma Sharma
The Long-tailed Parakeet, the Malabar Parakeet and the Nicobar parakeet are reported to be endemic to their localities in the subcontinent. Majority of the parakeet species are sexually dimorphic and often the juvenile and sub-adults differ in coloration and plumage from the adult members. Most of these species are known by various vernacular names in the ethnically and linguistically diverse subcontinent and often similar name (s) from different regions may or may not represent same species. The parakeets are extremely popular as pets in most parts of the subcontinent; and hence an important point of concern for their successful conservation. The Rose-Ringed Parakeet is one of the most common species seen as pets in home across the region. But according to TRAFFIC (India) eight out of 12 parakeet species has been commonly seen in the Indian pet markets during their survey, indicating that ~67% of the species reported form the region has been seriously impacted by poaching, illegal capture and pet trade.
Rose-ringed parakeet or Ring-necked parakeet (Psittacula krameri Scopoli). Photo credit-Manorma Sharma.
Commonly known Indian subcontinent species are mentioned below:
|English name||Scientific name||Length (cm)||IUCN Status||Sexual dimorphism||Distribution|
|Alexandrine Parakeet or Parrot or Large Indian Parakeet||Psittacula eupatria Linnaeus||53||LC, SC-IV||Yes||Indian subcontinent & SE Asia|
|Blossom-headed Parakeet||Psittacula roseate Biswas||36||LC, SC-IV||Yes||NE India & SE Asia|
|Lord Derby’s Parakeet or Derbyan Parakeet||Psittacula derbiana Fraser||NT, SC-I, PART-III||Yes||NE India (Arunachal Pradesh) & limited distribution southern China|
|Grey-headed Parakeet or Humes Parakeet or Finsch’s Parakeet||Psittacula finschii Humes||36||LC, SC-IV||No||NE India & SE Asia|
|Intermediate Parakeet or Rothschild’s Parakeet (?)||Psittacula intermedia Rothschild||36 (?)||?||Yes||Never seen or officially reported in the wild and is believed to be most plausibly a hybrid between Slaty- & Plum headed Parakeets with considerable variations among different specimens. Could be generated under some captive breeding. Some unconfirmed reports highlights on Sub-Himalayan distribution (?)|
|Long-tailed Parakeet or Rosy or Red Cheeked Parakeet||Psittacula longicauda Boddaert||47||NT, SC-IV||Yes||Andaman & Nicobar islands (India), restricted localities of SE Asia (parts of Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore)*|
|Malabar Parakeet or Blue Winged Parakeet||Psittacula columboides Vigors||38||LC, SC-IV||Yes||Western Ghats (India)*|
|Nicobar Parakeet or Blyth’s Parakeet||Psittacula caniceps Blyth||61||NT, SC-IV||Yes||Nicobar islands (India)* ; largest among the parakeets|
|Plum-headed Parakeet||Psittacula cyanocephala Linnaeus||36||LC, SC-IV||Yes||Indian subcontinent*|
|Red-breasted Parakeet or Mustached Parakeet||Psittacula alexandri Linnaeus||38||LC, SC-IV||Yes||Indian subcontinent|
|Rose-ringed Parakeet or Ring-necked Parakeet||Psittacula krameri Scopoli||42||LC, SC-IV||Yes||Indian subcontinent & Africa|
|Slaty-headed Parakeet or Himalayan Parakeet||Psittacula himalayana Lesson||41||LC, SC-IV||Yes||The Himalayas; across the subcontinent; demonstrate altitudinal migration pattern|
|Vernal Hanging Parrot or Indian Lorikeet (Sub Family-Agapornithinae)||Loriculus vernalis Spartman||14||LC, SC-IV||No||Indian subcontinent & SE Asia|
NT: Near Threatened; LC: Least Concerned; ?: Doubtful status; *: Endemic species; SC: Schedule III & IV under Indian Wildlife Act (1972), Protected Species
Map on the Indian Sub-Continent
The diet of the parakeets usually include seeds, nuts and wild fruits, cereal grains, pigeon peas, buds and flowers, orchard fruits and other plant parts; rarely insects and worms. They are also found to flock in huge numbers along edges of river beds eating mud to supplement their diet with mineral elements. They usually like nesting in the cavities of old trees or in natural or artificial holes or cavities of old and abandoned towers, chimneys and buildings, abandoned farm houses and factories etc. They live in the wild as dedicated pairs and are fiercely territorial in nature. Both parents take part in rearing their chicks and are known to be devoted parents. Most commonly observed courtship behaviors noticed in different parakeet species varies between courtship feeding, rubbing of bills, sitting closely with the partner and head bobbing and other related behaviors. The young hatch after an incubation period of about 20-40 days and fledge between 4-10 weeks depending on the species concerned. Each clutch again varies between 2-8 eggs depending on the species of the parakeet.
The eggs laid by all the parakeets are white in color. Fledglings are usually old enough to leave the protection of their nest before the onset of monsoon. Chicks are usually monomorphic and show their dimorphic plumage on adulthood depending upon their species. The males usually have brighter spots, patches, marks and rings compared to the female of the species exhibiting dimorphism. Most parakeets make affectionate and adorable pets. However, many species are aggressive and could bite when disturbed, threatened, irritated and provoked in self defense. In addition to humans; other predators of the parakeet eggs and chicks include snakes, monitor lizards, mongoose, civets, monkeys and birds of prey. Feral populations of different parakeet species have been well established in different cities, municipalities and towns of the subcontinent and the species have successfully adapted to the urban environment.
In the rural areas of the subcontinents often giant flocks of different parakeets are considered as pests and attack fruit gardens and orchards causing huge financial damages by foraging on both ripe and immature fruits and flowers. However, under Indian Wildlife Act (1972) all the parrots are protected species and could not be killed and hunted under Indian laws. The life expectancy in the wild varies between 6-12 years depending upon species; while in captivity and in the zoological gardens and aviaries they have been reported to live for almost 30-40 years or even more. Breeding the Indian parakeets in captivity is not greatly successful and hence the pet trade has been a detrimental factor causing illegal capture and sale of different species; the most popular being the Indian Rose-ringed Parakeet. But other species are also observed in the illegal pet markets in great numbers. Few species being capable of mimicking human speech and have been highly endured as popular pets causing further damages to their natural population dynamics. Chicks are often trapped for the purpose of illegal trade on pets and are responsible for their high mortality.
Often housed in small cages with poor diet and poor access to fresh water and sunlight have cased the deaths of several parakeets in confinement. Transportation after capture over long distances also results in high mortality rates. Furthermore, poor sanitation of the cages, insufficient diet, over crowding, diseases and exhaustion kills a large number of the captured parakeets even before they are sold; and many die off soon after reaching their end consumer due to too much care (over care) or total negligence and lack of training and necessary knowledge in managing, rearing and handling caged parakeets.
In addition to the anthropogenic pressures in the form of poaching, hunting and capture; the parakeets are also impacted by rapid degradation of their natural habitats, devegetation, habitat fragmentation, forest fires and pollution. Stringent monitoring and surveillance of the illegal pet markets by both government and non-government organizations will be absolutely important along with raising awareness and education among the general public for successful and long term conservation of the beautiful parrot species of the subcontinent.
©TRAFFIC (India). Published with kind permission of TRAFFIC (India) for the purpose of education and awareness. The poster is available at: http://www.wwfindia.org/?6900/TRAFFIC-helps-to-claw-back-illegal-parrot-trade-in-India
Article submitted by: Saikat Kumar Basu
Irrigation canals constitute an important nesting site for several aquatic bird species and have slowly transformed into an excellent natural habitat over the passing decades. Several wild aquatic bird species such as Canada geese (Branta canadensis L.; Fig 1) and mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos L.; Fig 2) have in particular found such canals as important nesting, resting, breeding and foraging sites across the Canadian Prairies. The lush vegetation that accompanies irrigation canals traversing across the municipalities and rural districts provides excellent nesting and hiding sites for the breeding aquatic species; while the water in the irrigation canal serves as important foraging ground. The dense vegetation protects the nests, eggs and nestlings from a host of predators making their breeding a success story across the Prairies.
The security of the bushes and the abundant supply of food, water, foraging and nesting resources have made certain stretches of the intricate network of irrigation canal a bold success story for several such aquatic bird species. During the breeding season large flocks are seen to be approaching the canal nesting sites in good numbers both by the mallards (Fig 3) and the Canada geese (Fig 4). Although a number of predatory birds and mammals do also nest in nearby trees (Fig 4) and bushes and woods to take advantage of the yearly bounty; particularly the highly vulnerable nestlings and fledglings such as the young and defenseless ducklings and goslings.
However, the greater number and close guards by the caring parents do not actually impact the species population and is in particular nature’s own monitoring in keeping the population under check (Figs 5-6). Hence, in a broader term a healthy and thriving population of the ducks and the geese actually positively contributes towards the stable population of the predatory birds and mammals too; further extending the success of the irrigation canals to other wildlife species. In addition to the mallards and Canada geese or black geese, other species of ducks and geese (such as the grey and white geese) are also known to take advantage of the refuge of the irrigation canal habitats along their annual migration routes. Several other non-aquatic bird species like the different black birds (Fig 5) that inhabit the ecotones between land and water also take advantage of the natural habitats produced by the irrigation canals.
Hence, the construction and development of the large network of irrigation canals across the Prairies have been an excellent natural resource that has been helping in building the population of local birds and in directly contributing towards establishing a sustainable environment. However, it will be important in future to do extensive bird surveys in and adjacent to such artificial habitats for monitoring the bird population and in better understanding the nature and behaviors of different species that have been intelligently using such available resources to their advantage. It is often interesting to note that anthropogenic activities that impact wildlife species so negatively could also have positive impacts in some other ways. It will be therefore important for us to learn from the experience and develop our future technologies in a pro-nature or environment friendly fashion so that we could effectively curb our foot prints on the nature and also successfully reduce our impacts on the population of different wild species of birds.
Prime nesting and foraging habitats of Canada geese adjoining irrigation canals are pictured below (Fig 7-8).
Article contributed by Saikat Kumar Basu
The coastal seaport city of Vancouver in British Columbia, Canada, features a wide variety of habitats which attract large numbers of birds. To encourage interest in local and migratory birdlife, Vancouver hosts an annual event called Vancouver’s Bird Week, with the 2014 program taking place on May 3-10. This week-long celebration offers a host of bird-related walks, talks, workshops, exhibition and lectures at various venues across Vancouver, at no cost to participants. The Roundhouse and Hillcrest community centers will host artists’ workshops for all ages, as well as art exhibitions, and the week will draw to a close on World Migratory Bird Day with a series of nature walks in Vancouver’s spectacular parks.
As part of the celebrations, members of the public are encouraged to choose from six popular Vancouver bird species to decide which will be honored as the City’s Bird for the year. This is the first time a City Bird is being selected in this way, and the winner is to be announced on May 10, the closing day of Vancouver’s Bird Week. Birds in the running for the honor of City Bird include Anna’s Hummingbird, the Black-Capped Chickadee, the Pileated Woodpecker, Varied Thrush and Northern Flicker – all beautiful birds, each with their own unique characteristics.
The Pileated Woodpecker (Dryocopus pileatus) is the largest of the City Bird candidates and is very distinctive with its black body, white stripes, flaming red crest and long, strong beak. Residing in mature forests and wooded parks, Woodpeckers are known for pecking holes in trees while searching out their preferred meal of carpenter ants. The Pileated Woodpecker makes quite large rectangular holes in trees, sometimes weakening smaller trees and causing them to break. They do not restrict their search to a particular species of tree and will search for ants and beetle larvae in both coniferous and deciduous trees, sometimes peeling long strips of bark from trees as they do so. They also forage through leaf litter on the ground and eat nuts and fruit. The woodpecker’s search for food produces a loud hammering sound that can be heard from far away. They also hammer as part of their mating ritual and to set their territorial boundaries. Certainly the Pileated Woodpecker is among the more fascinating birds living in the vicinity of Vancouver.
Picture courtesy of Nigel from Vancouver (Wikimedia Commons)
Featuring more than 1,300 maps describing patterns of distribution for nearly 300 bird species, the new British Trust for Ornithology (BTO) Bird Atlas 2007-11 has recently been released to the public. This comprehensive study of bird distribution trends in Britain and Ireland was compiled from data gathered by more than 40,000 volunteers over a period of four summers and four winters. The information was analyzed by scientists and authors Simon Gillings, Dawn Balmer, Brian Caffrey, Bob Swann, Rob Fuller and Iain Downie and compiled into a treasure trove of information for all who are interested in the birdlife of this region.
Among the wealth of interesting information presented in the Bird Atlas is the fact that as many as forty exotic species have taken up residence in Britain and Ireland. These include the white-cheeked turaco from Ethiopia and Sudan; the red-rumped parrot of Australia; the pin-tailed whydah of sub-Saharan Africa; and the Alexandrine parakeet from Sri Lanka and India, as well as zebra finches and Chinese pheasants. While these are most likely originally escapees from private owners, they have adapted to their surroundings and many have started breeding. So, although they are not indigenous to Britain and Ireland, it appears that they are there to stay and should therefore be monitored along with local populations.
This monitoring becomes even more important when exotic species start posing a threat to native birds, as appears to be the case with the ring-necked parakeet from Delhi. These birds were first reported in the wild in Britain in 1971, having escaped from aviaries. The survey notes that there are now more than 30,000 ring-necked parakeets resident across southern Britain and they appear to be moving northwards. As they use holes in trees to lay their eggs, they are encroaching on the nesting territory of the nuthatch and other birds – and are not shy about taking over.
Observations regarding native birds include the disheartening fact that nightingales, yellowhammers and woodcocks numbers are declining. On the other hand it’s been noted that the little egret and avocet is experiencing an increase in numbers. In addition to listing statistics, the Bird Atlas provides explanations regarding changes that have taken place. For example, the decline in Dartford warbler breeding pairs from 3,214 pairs in 2006, to 600 pairs in 2010 is attributed to the harsh winters experienced in two successive years. It’s not all doom and gloom for Dartford warblers though, as the Bird Atlas notes that they have the capacity to recover and expand their range.
For more information on the new British Trust for Ornithology Bird Atlas 2007-11, visit the BTO Website.
This exciting birding festival features a program of presentations offering up-to-date technical information, as well as birding and wildlife experiences. Field trips will take birders into a number of different habitats on Florida’s spectacular Space Coast, as well as into nearby counties in search of specific special and rare birds. Other highlights of the festival include the Pelagic Birding Boat Trip and the Raptor Project. For more information visit www.spacecoastbirdingandwildlifefestival.org
Dates: 23-28 January 2013
Venue: Brevard Community College
Country: United States