Myna: A widely diverse species from the Indian subcontinent

March 2, 2015 by  
Filed under Features

Myna (Mynah) is a member of the starling (Sturnidae) family under the order Passeriformes. Mynas have been part of the avifauna of the subcontinent for long. Some of the species like the Common Myna or the Indian myna (Acridotheres tristis) are found to be moderate to closely associate with human settlements and habitation throughout their range. Because of their ability to quickly adapt to urban and semi-urban conditions they have been quite successful in breeding and propagating in the urban and city environments. Like the rock dove they have been an opportunistic species and hence have been successful in their survival in the concrete forests of the modern metropolis. The cities as well as the rural areas of the subcontinent have been undergoing rapid transformations in the past five decades. There has been expansion of the industrial belts as well as encroachments of different ecosystems for the spread of agriculture and human habitation. This has impacted fragmentation of several pristine habitats and has impacted some species of myna in different localities and habitation pockets within the subcontinent. While the highly adaptive species have survived this changing dynamics of both urban and rural landscapes and have propagated successfully. The vanishing of the old trees and parks and undisturbed corners of major cities in India have been impacted due to anthropogenic pressures as well as rapid human economic developments. This has certainly reduced the breeding and nesting sites for several myna species but some have adapted to a certain extent to such disturbances and adjusted with the changes happening in their immediate environment.

Common Myna. Photo credit-Saikat Kumar Basu

The Common Myna has been an opportunistic species; that has adapted successfully to the urban life (A & E) and survived under the rapidly transforming metro cities with severe anthropogenic pressures with stark contrast between modern apartments (C) and encroaching slum areas (B & D); and even in absence of open spaces such as abandoned undisturbed areas and parks (F). Photo credits: Ratnabali Sengupta & Srimoyi Mazumder.

The different myna species reported from the Indian subcontinent include:

1. COMMON MYNA/INDIAN MYNA (Acridotheres tristis Linnaeus)

2. PIED MYNA (Gracupica contra Linnaeus)

3. BANK MYNA (Acridotheres ginginianus Latham)

4. Great myna (Acridotheres grandis Moore)

5. Collared myna (Acridotheres albocinctus Godwin-Austen & Walden)

6. Golden-crested myna (Ampeliceps coronatus Blyth)

7. JUNGLE MYNA (Acridotheres fuscus Wagler)

8. COMMON HILL MYNA/ HILL MYNA (Gracula religiosa Linnaeus)

9.Southern hill myna (Gracula indica Cuiver)

10. Sri Lanka hill myna/Ceylon myna/Sri Lanka myna (Gracula ptilogenys Blyth)

 

Map of the Indian subcontinent.

One the most common and abundant of all the myna species reported from the subcontinent are the Indian Mynas or the Common Mynas (Acridotheres tristis). Their range includes the entire Indian subcontinent China, Central Asia & SE Asia and has been introduced to different locations in Australia New Zealand, parts of west Asia and different island chains in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans ranging from Asia to Africa. The species has been regarded as acutely invasive in some countries and has been placed under pest status in other localities. The species has actively adapted to different urban environment very successfully.


Common Myna (Acridotheres tristis L.) foraging. Photo credit-Manorma Sharma


Common Myna (Acridotheres tristis L.) is a highly urbanized bird species that has well adapted to city life by foraging on garbage dumps and other human trash. Photo credit: Srimoyi Mazumder.

Most of the species are distributed across the subcontinent and SE Asia with the Southern Hill Myna  (Gracula indica) reported from peninsular India and Sri Lanka; and the Sri Lankan Hill Myna (Gracula ptilogenys) being endemic to Sri Lanka. The Collared Myna (Acridotheres albocinctus) is more common in the eastern and north eastern states of India, southern China and in western Myanmar. According to IUCN all the species reported from the subcontinent are currently placed under the Least Concerned (LC) status. The Southern Hill Myna (Gracula indica) very closely resembles the Common Hill Myna (Gracula religiosa) and is quite difficult to differentiate between them morphologically; although they are two different species under the same genus Gracula. The Sri Lankan hill myna (Gracula ptilogenys) was previously described as a sub species of the Southern Hill Myna but has later been designated as a separate and endemic species found only in Sri Lanka. The Sri Lankan Hill Myna is easily distinguishable from both the Common and Southern Hill Myna species. The color is comparatively duller in comparison to the Common and Southern Hill Myna species; both of which have shiny black plumage, bright orange beaks and bright yellow skin patch (wattle) around the head and the nape.


Common Hill Myna Photo credit- Rahul Ray

The orange-crested myna (Ampeliceps coronatus) is easily identifiable with the black body and bright yellow colored head. The great myna (Acridotheres grandis) and the jungle myna (Acridotheres fuscus) have close resemblance; however, the former is bigger in size and is dark black while the latter is shiny brownish in color and can be separated based on that.  Furthermore, great myna has yellow beak and legs; while the jungle myna has orange beak and legs. The collared myna (Acridotheres albocinctus) is also similar to the Great Myna and the Jungle Myna in external appearance but could be easily separated due to the presence of bright distinct yellow colored ring or patch around the neck.


Southern Hill Myna.  Photo credit- Rahul Ray

The mynas are vocal species and are dedicated parents caring for their young ones. They usually love nesting around cracks and corners of abundant houses and buildings, woods, forests and on high trees. They are capable of surviving in disturbed habitats and forage on plant parts, fruits and seeds, grains, worms, insects, human food and also by forging on garbage or trash materials. The species is territorial with males engaged in frequent fights with opponents and rivals in defending their territories. The fights are seldom threatening and are usually terminated with the weaker individual flying away to avoid further combat engagements. Some species like the Indian Hill Myna are targeted exclusively by the poachers for their value in the illegal pet trade due to their unique ability to mimic human communication and words. Due to their high demand in both regional and international illegal pet markets, a large number of them are trapped and captured and illegally transferred over long distances for sale. The Indian Hill Myna is the ‘State Bird’ for the Indian states of Chhattisgarh and Meghalaya.


Pied Myna (Gracupica contra L) is also now considered a starling rather than a true myna. Photo credi: Rahul Ray.


Brahminy Myna or Brahminy Starling (Sturnia pagodarum Gmelin) is not actually a true myna or a jungle myna; but actually a starling belonging to the same family as the mynas. Reported across the Indian subcontinent, the species is considered as Least Concerned by IUCN. Photo credits: Rahul Ray 

Article submitted by Saikat Kumar Basu and Rahul Ray

 

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