Myna: A widely diverse species from the Indian subcontinent

March 2, 2015 by  
Filed under Features

Myna (Mynah) is a member of the starling (Sturnidae) family under the order Passeriformes. Mynas have been part of the avifauna of the subcontinent for long. Some of the species like the Common Myna or the Indian myna (Acridotheres tristis) are found to be moderate to closely associate with human settlements and habitation throughout their range. Because of their ability to quickly adapt to urban and semi-urban conditions they have been quite successful in breeding and propagating in the urban and city environments. Like the rock dove they have been an opportunistic species and hence have been successful in their survival in the concrete forests of the modern metropolis. The cities as well as the rural areas of the subcontinent have been undergoing rapid transformations in the past five decades. There has been expansion of the industrial belts as well as encroachments of different ecosystems for the spread of agriculture and human habitation. This has impacted fragmentation of several pristine habitats and has impacted some species of myna in different localities and habitation pockets within the subcontinent. While the highly adaptive species have survived this changing dynamics of both urban and rural landscapes and have propagated successfully. The vanishing of the old trees and parks and undisturbed corners of major cities in India have been impacted due to anthropogenic pressures as well as rapid human economic developments. This has certainly reduced the breeding and nesting sites for several myna species but some have adapted to a certain extent to such disturbances and adjusted with the changes happening in their immediate environment.

Common Myna. Photo credit-Saikat Kumar Basu

The Common Myna has been an opportunistic species; that has adapted successfully to the urban life (A & E) and survived under the rapidly transforming metro cities with severe anthropogenic pressures with stark contrast between modern apartments (C) and encroaching slum areas (B & D); and even in absence of open spaces such as abandoned undisturbed areas and parks (F). Photo credits: Ratnabali Sengupta & Srimoyi Mazumder.

The different myna species reported from the Indian subcontinent include:

1. COMMON MYNA/INDIAN MYNA (Acridotheres tristis Linnaeus)

2. PIED MYNA (Gracupica contra Linnaeus)

3. BANK MYNA (Acridotheres ginginianus Latham)

4. Great myna (Acridotheres grandis Moore)

5. Collared myna (Acridotheres albocinctus Godwin-Austen & Walden)

6. Golden-crested myna (Ampeliceps coronatus Blyth)

7. JUNGLE MYNA (Acridotheres fuscus Wagler)

8. COMMON HILL MYNA/ HILL MYNA (Gracula religiosa Linnaeus)

9.Southern hill myna (Gracula indica Cuiver)

10. Sri Lanka hill myna/Ceylon myna/Sri Lanka myna (Gracula ptilogenys Blyth)

 

Map of the Indian subcontinent.

One the most common and abundant of all the myna species reported from the subcontinent are the Indian Mynas or the Common Mynas (Acridotheres tristis). Their range includes the entire Indian subcontinent China, Central Asia & SE Asia and has been introduced to different locations in Australia New Zealand, parts of west Asia and different island chains in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans ranging from Asia to Africa. The species has been regarded as acutely invasive in some countries and has been placed under pest status in other localities. The species has actively adapted to different urban environment very successfully.


Common Myna (Acridotheres tristis L.) foraging. Photo credit-Manorma Sharma


Common Myna (Acridotheres tristis L.) is a highly urbanized bird species that has well adapted to city life by foraging on garbage dumps and other human trash. Photo credit: Srimoyi Mazumder.

Most of the species are distributed across the subcontinent and SE Asia with the Southern Hill Myna  (Gracula indica) reported from peninsular India and Sri Lanka; and the Sri Lankan Hill Myna (Gracula ptilogenys) being endemic to Sri Lanka. The Collared Myna (Acridotheres albocinctus) is more common in the eastern and north eastern states of India, southern China and in western Myanmar. According to IUCN all the species reported from the subcontinent are currently placed under the Least Concerned (LC) status. The Southern Hill Myna (Gracula indica) very closely resembles the Common Hill Myna (Gracula religiosa) and is quite difficult to differentiate between them morphologically; although they are two different species under the same genus Gracula. The Sri Lankan hill myna (Gracula ptilogenys) was previously described as a sub species of the Southern Hill Myna but has later been designated as a separate and endemic species found only in Sri Lanka. The Sri Lankan Hill Myna is easily distinguishable from both the Common and Southern Hill Myna species. The color is comparatively duller in comparison to the Common and Southern Hill Myna species; both of which have shiny black plumage, bright orange beaks and bright yellow skin patch (wattle) around the head and the nape.


Common Hill Myna Photo credit- Rahul Ray

The orange-crested myna (Ampeliceps coronatus) is easily identifiable with the black body and bright yellow colored head. The great myna (Acridotheres grandis) and the jungle myna (Acridotheres fuscus) have close resemblance; however, the former is bigger in size and is dark black while the latter is shiny brownish in color and can be separated based on that.  Furthermore, great myna has yellow beak and legs; while the jungle myna has orange beak and legs. The collared myna (Acridotheres albocinctus) is also similar to the Great Myna and the Jungle Myna in external appearance but could be easily separated due to the presence of bright distinct yellow colored ring or patch around the neck.


Southern Hill Myna.  Photo credit- Rahul Ray

The mynas are vocal species and are dedicated parents caring for their young ones. They usually love nesting around cracks and corners of abundant houses and buildings, woods, forests and on high trees. They are capable of surviving in disturbed habitats and forage on plant parts, fruits and seeds, grains, worms, insects, human food and also by forging on garbage or trash materials. The species is territorial with males engaged in frequent fights with opponents and rivals in defending their territories. The fights are seldom threatening and are usually terminated with the weaker individual flying away to avoid further combat engagements. Some species like the Indian Hill Myna are targeted exclusively by the poachers for their value in the illegal pet trade due to their unique ability to mimic human communication and words. Due to their high demand in both regional and international illegal pet markets, a large number of them are trapped and captured and illegally transferred over long distances for sale. The Indian Hill Myna is the ‘State Bird’ for the Indian states of Chhattisgarh and Meghalaya.


Pied Myna (Gracupica contra L) is also now considered a starling rather than a true myna. Photo credi: Rahul Ray.


Brahminy Myna or Brahminy Starling (Sturnia pagodarum Gmelin) is not actually a true myna or a jungle myna; but actually a starling belonging to the same family as the mynas. Reported across the Indian subcontinent, the species is considered as Least Concerned by IUCN. Photo credits: Rahul Ray 

Article submitted by Saikat Kumar Basu and Rahul Ray

 

The Fading of House Sparrow from Kolkata, India

February 24, 2015 by  
Filed under Features

The urbanization pattern of the megacity of Kolkata (88º 30′ E -22º 33′ N; 6.4 meters above mean sea level), capital of the State of West Bengal in India, has been rapidly changing over the past few decades. The real estate business has been catching grounds in the metro city and the population goes on increasing without proper planning and initiatives from the perspective of modern urban development. Consequently, the megacity has been expanding with modern high rises, malls and multiplexes along with the existence of different slums in less-developed parts of the megacity. This megacity extends up to different sub-urban areas to accommodate her huge population without proper civic amenities available to the mass. The proper megacity has grown into 13th most populous metropolitan areas of the globe having a staggering population of 44,86,679 with population density of 24.252 people/km2 (according to 2011 Census). Population of Greater Kolkata with all its suburbs as per 2011 Census is 1,41,12,536 persons. It is the 7th largest city of India in area and a sex-ratio of 956 females per 1000 males with a literacy rate of 81.31% (Basic Statistics of Kolkata, Kolkata Municipal Corporation, retrieved January 31, 2015).
 

Map showing the location of the city of Kolkata in eastern India
 

The complexity of the intense anthropogenic pressures has rapid negative impact on urban wildlife and avian population. One of the worst hit unfortunate species is the House Sparrow (Passer domesticus Linnaeus, 1758). The tiny bird varies in length between 13-15 cm and 20-40 gm in weight. It belongs to the Family-Passeridae and the Order-Passeriformes. The species is sexually dimorphic with males are distinct with their darker brownish back plumage compared to the duller females. The males also have a black streak mark just below their beak absent in the females. The species is known to be quite social and vocal with large social breeding groups nesting closely to one another. The females have been more difficult to spot recently in comparison to the males; possibly indicating some skewed sex ratio that need to be confirmed through extensive survey.
 

 
Sexual dimorphism in house sparrows, with dull patterned female sparrow on the top left and brightly colored on the top right. An excellent example of natural camouflage demonstrated by a lone male house sparrow in Kolkata (bottom image). The bird could not be easily distinguished from the background and hence highlighted within the circle for easy spotting. Photo credit: Srimoyi Mazumder
 

In local dialect (Bengali) it is known as ‘Chorai’ or ‘Chorui’. This noisy bird is very familiar with humans and is often seen in close association with human settlements. It has been well known to be a successful urban species that usually nests around snug corners of houses, edges and corners of the roofs and any opportunistic availability of spaces and sites within and around human settlements such as a higher unreachable corner of a balcony, old unused shelves inside unused rooms, ventilators and inside of brick tiles.

During 1990s some ornithologists first noticed the declining rate of sparrows. In 2012, with the cooperation of ‘Nature Forever Society`, a citizen’s science activity was initiated in India to collect various data about sparrow. The data showed that sparrow number dwindled alarmingly in central and north-eastern India. The report identified some factors behind this declining number of sparrows.

 

A male sparrow foraging.  Photo credit: Srimoyi Mazumder
 

Nowadays old houses in and around Kolkata are disappearing quickly leaving spaces for modern housing apartments, multistoried buildings, skyscrapers, high rises and malls in quest for urban development. The real estate boom in this megacity has been transforming several old localities into high value concrete jungles. The design and construction of these modern buildings do not attract or appeal to the friendly house sparrows as potential nesting sites. Moreover, in these buildings normally the windows are made by glass/fiber or glass/steel where the sparrows have very little chance to enter the room. Modern scientific amenities, e.g. air conditioner in these buildings also make lives of sparrows at stake due to change of air temperature between inside and outside of room. The economic boom has been transforming the city dynamics and landscaping feature drastically. Old bungalows, one or two storied houses and apartments with lawns, gardens in the midst of short stretches of untouched city woods are disappearing speedily. This ultimately leads the unfortunate sparrows in losing their potential safe nesting and breeding sites. Felling of several old trees for the construction of highly modernized, scenic and well lighted boulevards and avenues further reduces potential nesting sites for these smaller birds.
 

 

Old single storied traditional residence (A), big roadside trees (B) and shrubs, city wetlands (C) and parks (D) are disappearing fast and making space for modern multi-storied offices and housing apartments (E-G) reducing foraging, nesting and breeding sites for house sparrows. Photo credits: Saikat Kumar Basu, Ratnabali Sengupta, Sutapa Basu & Pallav Mulhopadhyay.

The increased migration of people from the rural areas into the megacity from adjoining districts and states for economic opportunities has added additional anthropogenic pressures on Kolkata. In absence of opportunity to grow to keep up with the pace of such unprecedented human migration into the megacity in terms of urban projects and developments slums, shanties and illegal constructions have taken place mostly in an unplanned way in every available free space within city boundaries. This unrestricted and unbalanced growth of population due to in migration has further reduced the availability of open and undisturbed green stretches within the megacity. It results in lessening breeding opportunities for several erstwhile city wildlife and avian populations including the helpless and hapless house sparrows. Naturally their numbers started falling over the past decades. Moreover, lack of safe nesting sites exposes these tiny birds and their chicks to several predators including cats, crows, raptors, snakes and humans.
 

 
Existing traditional and old school residences are still attractive nesting sites of house sparrows (A). The real estate boom in the city has been rapidly transforming and expanding the city of Kolkata negatively impacting the resident avifauna like house sparrow (B). Photo credit: Srimoyi Mazumder.

Extensive use of chemical pesticides in agricultural fields lying in greater Kolkata also expedites the rate of declining number of sparrows. These pesticides mostly kill the soft skinned insects which are favorite foods of sparrows. A mother sparrow normally feeds its chicks with these soft skinned insects. Hence, killing of soft skinned insects by pesticides creates food crisis for chicks. The sparrows are often seen to take dead insects killed by chemical pesticide poisoning as their foods. It becomes fatal for them. These tiny birds are very fond of grains. Today these grains are not free from chemical pesticides. Resultantly the sparrows become affected by these deadly pesticides. Apart from this, the grains in past are seen to be scattered over an open vast stretch of land under direct sunlight for drying. Sparrows meet up their hunger freely from there. But, nowadays, rapid processing of food grains in modern closed mechanized farming leave very little chances for sparrows to collect foods from scattered grains.
 

 
Resting on perch.  Photo credit: Rahul Ray

Extensive unwise and indiscriminate installation of mobile phone towers within the megacity and its adjoining areas is normally believed to be one of the major factors of decreasing sparrow population. Mobile towers emit 900-1800 mega hertz electromagnetic waves. This wave is detrimental for the nervous system of these tiny birds and gradually they lose their flying ability which in turn affects their food collection. It reveals through observation that the sparrows hardly stay for 7-10 days in nests if it built very near to mobile towers. Normally the incubation period of sparrows is 10-14 days, but it has been observed that in the vicinity of mobile towers even after a 30 day incubation period no chicks emerge from the eggs. However, some environmentalists and prominent ornithologists have argued that till date no such concrete and decisive conclusion regarding installation of mobile towers and declining rate of sparrows has been reached by any peer reviewed scientific literature. But they do admit that electromagnetic waves of such unmonitored towers are not congenial.
 

 
Resident male house sparrows (Passer domesticus ) roosting (A), foraging (B) and defending (C) its territory. Although house sparrows are on serious decline in the city, but other opportunistic avian members have aggressively occupied the niche and are represented by three most abundant, urbanized, highly adaptive and tolerant species in the city of Kolkata; such as the house crow [Corvus splendens Vieillot] (D), rock dove or rock pigeon [Columba livia Gmelin] (E) and common myna [Acridotheres tristis Linnaeus] (F). The densely populated city with enhanced air pollution and scarcely available green spaces; provides little opportunity for sensitive species such as house sparrow to breed and thrive successfully (G-I). Photo credits: Srimoyi Mazumder & Ratnabali Sengupta.

In India’s capital New Delhi, sparrow has been declared as ‘State Bird` in 1992. The house sparrow is also the ‘State Bird’ for the State of Bihar in eastern India. As per ‘Royal Society for Protection of Birds` of Britain, sparrows are enlisted in ‘Red Data Book` which is a comprehensive list of endangered and near-extinct species prepared by ‘International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources` (IUCN). Although IUCN has placed house sparrow under the Least Concerned (LC) status for now; but an alarming decline is being noticed in Kolkata and surrounding areas. What is more worrying is the fact that several unconfirmed reports are also indicating a sharp decline of house sparrows in other parts of India too. It is now time for a serious nationwide comprehensive survey to evaluate the true status of the species so that appropriate measures could be adopted for the successful conservation of this declining species. The United Nation (UN) observes, 20th March every year as the ‘World Sparrow Day’ signifying the global importance of this species.
 

 
The resurgence of sensitive avian species back to a busy and congested metro like Kolkata could happen by sincere attempts of greening and landscaping the city to the best of our ability through the creation of roof gardens (A-F), backyard gardens (G-H), city parks (I-N), boulevards (O), avenue (P), kitchen gardens (Q-R) and water bodies (S-T) to function as city oasis. With the resurgence of green patches back onto the city landscape we will be able to welcome sensitive avian species like the house sparrow to once again occupy their lost niche within the city ecosystem by providing them with opportunities for nesting, foraging and breeding. Photo credits: Saikat Kumar Basu

Article contributed by: Saikat Kumar Basu and Rahul Ray

The Majestic Blue Peafowl

February 12, 2015 by  
Filed under Features

Peafowl constitutes three species, the Indian peacock or the Indian peafowl or the Blue peafowl (Pavo cristatus L.) distributed widespread across the entire Indian subcontinent; the Green peafowl or the Java peafowl (Pavo muticus L.) restricted predominantly to South-East Asia; and the Congo peafowl or Congo peacock (Afropavo congensis Chapin) endemic to the Congo basin of central Africa. Although the Blue Peafowl is in the Least Concern category of IUCN, the green peafowl has been placed under Endangered and the Congo Peacock under Vulnerable status. The Indian and African species are sexually dimorphic, suggesting that male and female members show distinctly different appearance and plumage; while the Green peafowls are almost similar in appearance. The most common and widely distributed among these three is the majestic Indian peafowl or the Blue Peafowl found across the entire Indian subcontinent including India, Pakistan, Nepal and Bhutan, as far as Sri Lanka (Pavo cristatus singhalensis) and as an introduced species in the continents of North America, Europe and Australia. The species is unfortunately reported to be extinct in the wild in Bangladesh.
 

Map of the Indian subcontinent showing native range/distribution of Blue peafowl.

 
The Blue peafowl (peacock) is the national bird of the Republic of India and has been an inseparable part of the local culture, religion, tradition and history, art and sculpture, myths and legends of the great Indian subcontinent from time immemorial. It is believed that the bird was introduced in Europe by Alexander’s retreating army after their grand campaigns in Persia and India; as an exotic bird species for the elites of the society with spectacular beauty. The spectacular courtship behavior of the Blue peafowl has been a part of several local myths and legends related to eternal love and romanticism for centuries and mentioned in several ancient texts and scriptures suggesting their long association with their human neighbors. The bird has been a symbol of the royalty and elites and has been a regular pet reared in the royal gardens and parks in both ancient and medieval India along with spotted (axis) deer and black bucks.
 

Photo credit: Peiman Zandi
 
The blue peafowl has a characteristic blue and green image with iridescent properties. Occasional white peafowls (mostly leucistic) are also reported that are commonly breed by zoological gardens and by private bird parks or gardens across the globe for their high ornamental values and popularity with the visitors. True albinos are also reported but comparatively rare in nature. The most spectacular aspect of the Blue peafowl is the majestic tail feathers of the males (peacocks) with distinct “eyes” that are best observed when the males display their tail feathers well stretched to attract the females for breeding purposes. Although the males of the species (peacocks) are characterized by their spectacular colorful feathers; the females (peahens) are less spectacularly ornamented with a mix of dull green, grey, white and brown feathers and are slightly smaller in size than the males. They also lack the long extensive tail feathers of the peacocks. Both have crest or crown on their heads, but the peacocks have brighter colors compared to the peahens. The young and immature peafowls (peachicks) are dull in coloration, varying between tawny to yellow and with inconspicuous patches or streaks of dull brown or white.
 

Photo credit: Peiman Zandi
 
The species exhibit elaborate courtship displays, with several competing males (peacocks) displaying their majestic tail feathers with distinctive eyes to a target female (peahen). The peahens sleet the individuals with most elaborate displays which is believed to be sign for their genetic fitness and good health and features. There are several theories put forward since the time of Charles Darwin in explaining such elaborate courtship displays and their role in evolution. They constitute one of the best examples for sexual selection.
 

Photo credit: Rahul Ray
 
The males are extremely territorial and they defend their territory fiercely by engaging in close combats with their challengers and intruders; and are often quite aggressive during the breeding season and in defending their nesting sites from different predators. These are terrestrial birds that nest and forage on the ground and roost on the branches of high trees. Their diets include a mixture of various plants and plant parts, different arthropods including insects, reptiles (snakes) and amphibians (frogs). They are a noisy species with frequent territorial and alarm calls of the males are a well know feature of wild India. Several pairs may nest close to one another and raise their chicks; but are extremely territorial and intolerant, if another (particularly males) dare to venture into the territory claimed by a resident breeding couple.

Photo credit: Rahul Ray
 
Article contributed by: Rahul Ray and Saikat Kumar Basu

The Chupi Wetland: A Biodiversity Hotspot from West Bengal, Eastern India

February 3, 2015 by  
Filed under Features

Biodiversity constitutes an important aspect of global wildlife resources. It is important to note that major global biodiversity hotspots are located in developing and under developed nations scattered across different continents. Unfortunately, the socio-economic conditions in these poor but natural resource-rich nations along with their nascent human population, lack of employment opportunities, political unrest and related anthropogenic pressures have serious impacts on local biodiversity. Rapid habitat loss and habitat fragmentation of various species, poaching, illegal wildlife and pet trade on exotic species, illegal harvesting of wildlife and rare plants for non-judicious pharmaceutical and allied industries, extensive grazing in restricted forest areas by local livestock and ranch animals, forest fires, illegal human encroachments into forested areas, extension of industrial and agricultural hubs into virgin forests are gradually destroying the extremely fragile local ecosystem and highly endangered biodiversity. It is, therefore, extremely essential to call for the attention of the academics, researchers, wildlife and nature enthusiasts as well as the commonalty towards global challenges of biodiversity conservation. India being a country rich in biodiversity has a major stake in the global biodiversity conservation. We all need to work passionately in raising awareness and establishing a common platform to work for global biodiversity conservation to the best of our ability.


Since 1974, every year United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) declares a message about specific environmental issues to the people on 5th June observed as ‘World Environment Day`. The prime concern behind such messages is to make aware people about various environmental crises of earth and to act accordingly to save this only living planet. UNEP, in 2010, gives us the message –‘Many Species, One Planet, One Future’ to save the endangered and threatened species of wildlife and plants. Extinction of species is a natural process. Now, scientific evidences reveal that the current rate of extinction is not only alarming but much higher than natural and even any past rate throughout geological time scale. In every twenty minutes one species is now lost forever from this planet. Ecologists strongly indicate higher rate of habitat loss is the predominant force driving this alarming rate of species extinction.

In such bleak and dismal arrays of information there is an incandescent spurt of hopeful effort to conserve biodiversity, especially avifauna, by some local people in Chupi wetland; located in the Burdwan district of the eastern India state of West Bengal. The district is located around south central part of the state. The area of the Chupi wetland is approximately 3.15 square kilometres. This wetland is a stagnant U-shaped ox-bow lake formed by the changing course of River Ganga (Ganges) extending east to west. The length of the ox-bow lake is about 10 kilometres.

The Chupi wetland is rich in biodiversity. One can easily discern underneath a huge variety of zooplanktons and phytoplanktons through the crystal clear water of this wetland. Besides this, multiple species of fishes, toads, crabs, molluscs and insects are also found here. Every winter many species of migratory birds arrive here for these palatable foods. These birds come here crossing some thousands miles mainly from distant Siberia (Russia), Middle-Asia, Europe, Mongolia, China, Bhutan, Nepal, Ladakh (northern India) and from other areas of the Himalayas. They normally remain in the Chupi wetland for the entire winter season from December to February and go back to their abode at the end of the winter. Interestingly, a few migratory species are seen to stay here permanently, like the Lesser Whistling Teal.

The species mainly found here include Gadwall, Mallard, Ruddy Shelduck, Northern Pintail, Ferruginous Pochard, Red Crested Pochard, Lesser Whistling Teal, Open-bill Stork, Common Coot, Osprey, Small Pratincole, Terek Sandpiper, River Tern, Black-winged Stilt, River Lapwing, Spoonbill, Hoopoe, Cotton Pigmy Goose, Red vented Bulbul, Drongo, Pheasant Tailed Jacana, Greater Painted Snipe, Pond Heron or Paddy Bird, Egret, White Wagtail, Purple Moor Hen, Bronzed Winged Jacana, Field Sparrow, Grey Headed Lapwing, Cormorant, Darter, Crow Pheasant, Red Wattled Lapwing, Purple Heron, Jacana, Kingfisher, Pied Kingfisher, Green Bee Eater, Oriole, Woodpecker and so on.

As thousands of migratory birds make this wetland their favourite winter destination; this part of West Bengal quickly became one of the most talked about regions for poaching and illegal capture of several migratory bird species. Poaching became a major menace here. Poachers used nets and poisoned paddy to mercilessly kill the birds. Some poachers put sharp iron hooks hiding in favourite foraging spots of these birds with food baits. The unsuspecting birds very often became nailed in throats to death while swallowing the foods. Some poachers with illegal guns floated upon tubes completely covering themselves with water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms; Pontederiace) to indiscriminately shoot the helpless birds or capture them after being severely injured.

Nowadays illegal markets of these rare migratory birds involve hefty amount of money. While some birds are enmeshed for illegal trade, others are killed to quench the thirst for exotic bird meat. There is also a demand for eggs of these birds for making specialized food items. But, uncommonly, some native local people vehemently protested this illegal trade and capture of the rare species. They even did not step back from the gunpoint of the poachers. These people formed an organization named ‘Banobeethi’ (A Forest Thoroughfare) to protect the migratory birds and to educate other people about the value of these rare species. By their passionate effort Chupi wetland has slowly transformed into a safe haven for these birds. This, certainly, is a dazzling and infrequent example of environmental movement to save biodiversity even at the risk of their own lives.

Eminent Indian environmental lawyer, Mr. Biswajit Mukherjee, a path breaking green crusader and recipient of the prestigious ‘Indira Gandhi National Environment Award’ has joined these local inhabitants and has been engaged with the West Bengal State Forest Department to ensure protection of these birds to save local biodiversity. The Directorate of Forest Department has assured that they are seriously thinking over the matter for a broader and meaningful cooperation. We, the commonalty, also want more tightened security to protect these rare migratory birds because conservation of species is doubtlessly a key issue in the pretext of ecological democracy.

It is important that local residents and villagers should be made important stakeholders in the process of biodiversity conservation and this can effectively help in generating some alternative employment. Hiring permanent/temporary/contractual local labours, guards and wildlife staff trained for monitoring and surveillance, afforestation and participatory forest management programs, reconstruction of damaged vegetated areas and habitats and in conserving biodiversity and wildlife will be cheaper and much safer than bringing external labour force to an ecologically vulnerable region. Further, the involvement of local residents through employment and voluntary activities in biodiversity conservation will considerably make it easy to combat with poachers and illegal capture and trade of the helpless bird species. If local people are to be made actively involved in the conservation projects, the long term success of such vulnerable ecological habitats will definitely increase several folds.

Often it is necessary to extend the areas under conservation and it will be necessary to withdraw human residences for bringing a bigger section of vulnerable ecosystem under the umbrella of effective conservation management. The rehabilitation of the displaced people needs to be considered sympathetically so that they do not lose their natural livelihood and socio-cultural practices completely as a result of the conservation initiatives. If both processes are tied together empathetically and judiciously, smooth functioning of environmental protection together with modern industrial and agricultural developments in the line of socio-ecological progress will never be an impossible task. With the forces of development encroaching protected habitats, the existing habitats will never be as same as it was in its pristine state, but we can make it close to what it may be through sincere and dedicated efforts. Although extremely challenging, however, the task is not quite impossible.

Photo credits: Rahul Ray

Article contributed by: Rahul Ray and Saikat Kumar Basu